The traditional and historical reasons for the ownership of Fadak

Question: What are the traditional and historical reasons for the ownership of Fadak?
Answer: Shi’ite scholars and a group of Sunni traditionalists are unanimously agreed that when the verse “و ات ذا القربی حقه” “and give to the near of kin his due” was revealed, the holy Prophet (s.a.w.) gave Fadak to his daughter Fatima (a.s.).
This tradition has been transmitted by the two great Companions, Abu Sa’id Khidri and ibn Abbas, these Sunni traditionalists have quoted this tradition:
1- Jalal al- Din Siyuti, departed in 909 A.H. writes in his famous Tafsir that: “when the mentioned verse was revealed, the Prophet (s.a.w.) called Fatima and gave Fadak to her”.
He goes on to say that: “some traditionalists such as Bazaz, Abu Ya’li, ibn Abi Hatam and ibn Marduyah have quoted this tradition from the famous Companion, Abu Sa’id Khidri”.
He also says that: “ibn Marduyah has quoted from ibn Abbas that he said when the mentioned verse was revealed, the Prophet (s.a.w.) gave Fadak to Fatima”.[1]
2- Ala’ al- Din Ali ibn Hisam known as Mutaqi Hindi, Mecca resident and departed in 976 A.H. he has also quoted the above tradition.[2] He says that: “some traditionalists such as ibn al- Najar and Hakim in his Tarikh have quoted this tradition from Abu Sa’id”.
3- Abu Ishaq Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Ibrahim Nayshaburi known as Tha’labi, departed in 427 or 437 A.H. has quoted discussion of Imam Sajad (a.s.) with the Damascene man about the verse “و ات ذا القربی حقه” in his Tafsir “Al- Kashf wa al- Bayan”.[3]
4- The well-known historian, Bilazari, departed in 279 A.H. has quoted the context of the letter of Ma’mun to governor of Medina. It has been written in the letter that:[4]
"و قد کان رسول الله (ص) اعطی فاطمة فدک و تصدق بها علیها و کان ذلک امرا معروفا لا اختلاف فیه بین ال رسول الله (ص) و لم تزل تدعی ...".
“The Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.) gave the land of Fadak to Fatima (a.s.), and this matter is so certain that the household of the Prophet (a.s.) has never had disagreement on that, and she has been claimed the ownership of Fadak till the end of her life”.
5- Ahmad ibn Abdul- Aziz Juhari, the writer of the book “Al- Saqifah” writes that: “giving Fadak back to Hasan ibn Hasan ibn Ali was the first removal of injustice done by Umar ibn Abdul- Aziz when he took the reins of government”.[5]
6- In addition to these issues, ibn Abi al- Hadid has quoted the cause of revelation of the verse about Fadak from Abu Sa’id. He has relied on the saying of Sayyid Murtiza in the book “Shafi” in this quotation and if the saying of Sayyid Murtiza was not acceptable in his opinion, he surely criticized that.
Moreover studying the chapter related to the research of this matter in his Sharh (exposition) about Nahj al- Balaghah and considering the discussion that he has had with the master of western school of Baghdad clearly signifies that according to his opinion, the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.) has given Fadak to his beloved daughter.[6]
7- Halbi has mentioned the story of the claim of the Prophet’s daughter (a.s.) and the names of her witnesses in his Sirah, and says that: “the caliph of the time issued the deed of Fadak in the name of Fatima, but Umar took and tore it”.[7]
8- Mas’udi writes in the book “Muruj al- Zahab” that: “the Prophet’s daughter discussed with Abu Bakr about Fadak and asked him for giving Fadak back to her, and she brought Ali, Hasan, Husayn and Umma Iman as her witnesses.[8]
9- Yaqut Hamu’I writes that: “Fatima (a.s.) went to Abu Bakr and claimed that the Prophet (s.a.w.) had given Fadak to me. The caliph required witness and …”, at last he writes: “Fadak has been returned to the Prophet’s household (a.s.) during the caliphate of Umar [ibn Abdul- Aziz], because the Muslims’ income was very satisfactory”.[9]
10- Samhudi quotes the discussion of Fatima (a.s.) with Abu Bakr in the book “Wafa’ al- Wafa”, and he says that: “Ali and Umma Iman testified for Fatima, and both say that the Prophet (s.a.w.) has given Fadak to Fatima during his lifetime”, he also says that: “Fadak has been returned to Zahra’s family at the time of caliphate of Umar ibn Abdul- Aziz”.[10]
11- A Damascene man met Ali ibn al- Husayn and said: “introduce yourself”. Imam said: “did you recite this verse “و ات ذا القربی حقه” in Bani Israil surah?”, The Damascene man confirm that: “it was for kinship that Allah ordered the Prophet (s.a.w.) to give their rights”.[11]
The great characters of Shia such as Kulayni, Ayashi and Saduq have quoted the revelation of the verse about the Prophet’s (s.a.w.) household, and they have added that the Prophet gave Fadak to his daughter Fatima (a.s.) after revelation of the verse.[12]
In this case, the high-ranked researcher of Shia, the late Sayyid Hashim Bahrayni has quoted eleven traditions with some observable documents from Amir al- Muminin, Imam Sajad, Imam Sadiq, Imam Kazim and Imam Riza (a.s.).[13]

References
[1] - Al- Dur al- Manthur, vol. 4, p. 177, the text of the tradition is as follows: “لما نزلت هذه الآیه "و ات ذا القربی حقه" دعا رسول الله صلی الله علیه و آله و سلم فاطمة فا عطاها فدک”.
[2] - Kanz al- Ummal, Bab Silah Rahim, vol. 2, p. 157.
[3] - Al- Kashf wa al- Bayan known as Tafsir Tha’labi, vol. 6, p. 95.
[4] - Futuh al- Baldan, p. 46; Majma’ al- Baldan, vol. 4, p. 240.
[5] - Sharh Nahj al- Balaghah, ibn Abi al- Hadid, vol. 16, p. 216.
[6] - Sharh Nahj al- Balaghah, ibn Abi al- Hadid, vol. 16, p. 268 and 284, his discussion with his master will come in the next article.
[7] - Sirah, Halbi, vol. 3, p. 399 – 400.
[8] - Muruj al- Zahab, vol. 2, p. 200.
[9] - Majma’ al- Baldan, vol. 4, p. 238, the article of Fadak.
[10] - Wafa’ al- Wafa, vol. 2, p. 160.
[11] - Wafa’ al- Wafa, vol. 2, p. 160.
[12] - Tafsir Burhan, vol. 2, p. 419.
[13] - Tafsir Burhan, vol. 2, p. 419.

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